Charles Simeon (12 November 1836)
Charles Simeon was born on September 24, 1759. Up until college, his life was relatively undistinguished: he went to Eton for prep school and from there to King's College at Cambridge in 1779. Baptized as an infant, Simeon was not particularly religious. However, both Cambridge and Oxford had mandatory chapel at this time, and 3 days after his arrival on campus in January, Simeon was informed he would be expected to receive Communion in a few weeks.
All Cambridge students were required to receive communion at least three times in order to graduate, but few took the requirement seriously. Simeon was different: after learning of his upcoming participation in this rite, Simeon wrote in his diary that "Satan himself was as fit to attend as I; and that if I must attend, [to receive Holy Communion] I must prepare for my attendance there. Without a moments loss of time, I bought the old Whole Duty of Man, (the only religious book that I had ever heard of) and began to read it with great diligence; at the same time calling my ways to remembrance, and crying to God for mercy; and so earnest was I in these exercises, that within the three weeks I made myself quite ill with reading, fasting, and prayer " (Memoirs, p.6)
Although Simeon made his January Communion, he continued to feel like he was unfit for the Lord's Table. To fix this, Simeon took a quintessentially University of Chicago approach: he acquired a number of books, mostly dry theological treatises, to try and understand the meaning of Communion.
He also went around trying to undo all his former sins, but wrote that he was "so greatly oppressed with the weight of them, that I frequently looked upon the dogs with envy." He found he had so many sins, that he despaired of ever fully making restitution for them.
During Holy Week, Simeon was reading "Bishop Wilson's" book, which was speaking of the Jewish sacrifices in the Old Testament, and how the participants would transfer their sin to the "head" of their offering. Simeon had an epiphany: "What! may I transfer all my guilt to another? From that moment on I sought to lay my sins on the sacred head of Jesus, and on the Wednesday began to have a hope of mercy; and on the Thursday that hope increased; and on Friday and Saturday it became more strong; and on the Sunday (Easter Day, April 4) I awoke early with those words upon my heart and lips, Jesus Christ is risen to-day; Hallelujah! Hallelujah! From that hour peace flowed in rich abundance into my soul; and at the Lords Table in our chapel I had the sweetest access to God through my blessed Saviour." (Memoirs, p.9)
The 1770s were not an auspicious time to be an evangelical Christian. The Anglican Church was in the midst of dealing with the new Methodist movement, and the universities were strongholds of the established Church of England. A few years before Simeon's arrival at Cambridge, a group of students at Oxford had met on Sunday evenings for extemporaneous prayer and mutual encouragement. When a professor complained of "certain Enthusiasts in that Society, who talked of regeneration, inspiration, and drawing nigh unto God," the students were expelled.
Simeon recalls in his memoirs that after his conversion as a freshman, "for 3 years I knew not any religious person." He went through all of college alone without any other Christian students for support. Despite these obstacles, Simeon kept his faith and was ordained shortly after graduation by the Bishop of Petersborough.
Proudly listing Charles Simeon today.
In 1782 the bishop appointed Simeon as curate-in-charge at Holy Trinity Church in Cambridge, near the University. This was not a welcome event to the congregation: like most church congregations at the time, they wanted a preacher who would entertain, instead of one who issued serious exhortations to repent and believe, as Simeon did.
Church at this time was a little different than today: the job of priest/curate/rector was often a patronage position, given as a political or social favor, and the churchwardens or vestry really controlled the church. Another important difference was that the pew seats were assigned, and had doors on the ends which could be locked, to prevent anyone else from sitting in them. While the Holy Trinity churchwardens could not prevent Simeon from officiating at the Sunday morning service, for years the congregation not only refused to listen to Simeon's sermons, but locked their pews so that any visitors would not have a place to sit. When Simeon rented chairs at his own expense and placed them in the aisles, the churchwardens threw them out. One faculty member deliberately scheduled Sunday Greek sessions so his students would not have an opportunity to hear Simeon preach. Students hurled bricks through windows in on his worship services and lectures.
Simeon had such a bad reputation that one day, he journal records, he was amazed that some faculty member was not ashamed to walk publicly with him around the Clare College quad for a mere fifteen minutes. But Simeon persevered, and won over many who held him in contempt through his integrity and steadfast clutch on the gospel, although he would face opposition until the very end of his life and ministry.
Simeon had carved on the inside of the church pulpit, where only the preacher could see, the words a group of Greeks spoke to Philip when he and the other disciples were with Christ in Jerusalem before His death:"Sir, we would see Jesus." (John 12:21) Although constantly wondering if he should leave, Simeon remained at Holy Trinity for over fifty years.
Simeon's concern did not stop with his own congregation. On Sunday evenings he held classes in constructing good sermons, helping Cambridge students who would later become pastors. The students who caught Simeon's vision for evangelical witness became known as "Simeonites," or "Sims". In later years Simeon began collecting and publishing his sermon outlines as Horae Homileticae. (The link goes to Logos Bible Software, which has an e-book version of the Horae.)
Simeon realized that, while there was no shortage of solid Evangelical priests, the patronage system of parish appointments not only made it difficult for Evangelicals to secure parish appointments, but meant that continuity was not guaranteed: a congregation with a good preacher that left would not necessarily receive a good replacement. To combat these problems Charles Simeon established a trust, later known as the Simeon Trust, to purchase the "livings" or "advowsons" -- the right to appoint the priest-in-charge -- of various parishes.
In 1827 William Leeke, an fervent "Sim," and a number of other Cambridge students (from Queens' College) decided to set up a Sunday School for the inhabitants of the Bramwell district near the University. 220 children showed up for the first session of the Jesus Lane Sunday School. (The name came from one of the main streets through Bramwell.)
Simeon died on November 12, 1836. By this time he didn't have to worry about people being ashamed to be seen with him--over half the University came to pay their last respects to the great preacher. Nor did Simeon's ministries end at his death. The Simeon Trustees continue to work for evangelical leadership and quality preaching: St Peter's in Colchester is a present-day example of a Simeon Trust parish, and a new Simeon Trust (no organizational connection) has been established in Chicago to continue Simeon's vision.
Meanwhile, the Jesus Lane Sunday School continued for many years. Most of the students acting as teachers were preparing for ordained ministry, and in 1848 a first-year student suggested they form a Cambridge Prayer Union to regulary pray for each other. The Cambridge Prayer Union and other Christian groups on campus became the Cambridge Inter-Collegiate Christian Union (CICCU) in 1877. CICCU continues to promote student witness at Cambridge to this day, and has the longest continuous history of any known student group there. A Christian Union (CU) at Oxford followed a few years later.
The student leaders of CICCU were keenly aware that they were part of Charles Simeon's legacy, and followed his desire to preach "only Christ, and him crucified" (1 Cor 2:2). In the late 1800s a missionary revival began among students, loosely following the YMCA/YWCA associations in England and North America, later known as the Student Christian Movement (SCM).
Althought CICCU became part of the SCM at first, the latter organization gradually broadened its vision beyond just foreign missions, and became an ecumenical, "big tent" Christian organization, which led to CICCU splitting from the SCM in 1910.
In Spring 1919 CICCU's membership was in decline, and the Cambridge SCM chapter, a much larger group, expressed a desire to merge the two groups. When CICCU leaders failed to express interest in merging, they were accused of being divisive. Student leaders from both chapters met in a dorm room to hash things out. Norman Grubb, one of the CICCU leaders, tells the story:
"There were ten of them and two of us. After an hour's talk we appeared to be getting nowhere, so I asked their president point blank--"Does the SCM put the atoning blood of Jesus Christ central in its beliefs?" He hesitated and then answered, "Well, we acknowledge it, but not necessarily as central." The CICCU president [R.P. Dick]...and I then said that this really settled the matter for us in the CICCU. This set the CICCU going again on its old foundations and from which it has not moved." (Hunt, p.57.)
The CICCU leaders immediately began praying for strength to carry on the ministry of evangelical student witness. They also prayed that God would raise up strong Christian leaders at Oxford and other English universities. Although CICCU's numbers continued to fall, the remaining students were seized with a sense of God's leading, and in December 1919 they held the first Inter-Varsity (inter-university) convention for mutual encouragement between CUs.
By 1928 CICCU and other CUs had officially formed the Inter-Varsity Fellowship of Evangelical Unions (now Universities and Colleges Christian Fellowship, or UCCF), which in turn spread to Canada and then the United States. The Simeonites' Jesus Lane Sunday School had become an international student movement. Today CUs and similar fellowships exist in 145 countries. Over 250,000 students, staff, faculty, and supporters are working to make Christ's name known at their universities.
And it all started because one student, in the right place and the right time, feared mocking the Lord's Supper, discovered the Gospel, and took every chance he could to proclaim it.
"Eternal God, who raised up Charles Simeon to preach the good news of Jesus Christ and inspire your people in service and mission: grant that we with all your Church may worship the Saviour, turn in sorrow from our sins and walk in the way of holiness; through Jesus Christ your Son our Lord, who is alive and reigns with you, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever." (Anglican collect for Nov 12).
Readings and Other Resources
You can find more information about Simeon in these books:
- Keith and Gladys Hunt, For Christ and the University (InterVarsity Press, 1991).
- Charles Simeon, Memoirs. (Available online via Google Books or HathiTrust.)
- Hugh Evan Hopkins, Charles Simeon of Cambridge. Unfortunately out of print, but Mr. Whiteley (who operated the former Toronto Christian Book Centre) advised us he still is selling copies remaining in his inventory. Contact us for his information.
- Simeon's Horae Homileticae, a massive 21-volume set of Simeon's preaching outlines. You can find individual volumes in Google, but an easier interface to the full text is in HathiTrust or purchase the entire set from Logos.
Some other good web pages about Charles Simeon (from which I drew some of the material for this page):
- http://www.christianitytoday.com/le/2003/003/2.31.html Leadership Journal highlights some of Simeon's leadership qualities.
- http://www.kershaw.org.uk/song/charles_simeon.html . Simon Kershaw's calendar page for Charles Simeon includes Anglican readings and collect for the day.
- http://www.puritansermons.com/banner/simeon.htm A sermon on Charles Simeon by John Piper.
- Holy Trinity Church, where Simeon was vicar.